Transforming ATP Into Energy Part 1: The Cycles That Release Power
SUNDAY MARCH 6th, 2022
Happy start of a new week everyone. Let’s get all sciency today.
The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed but only transferred (or changed) from one state to another. Let’s go deep into how energy (ATP) is transferred in the human body.
This is a bit dense so I will break it up into two parts. This week will be part 1 discussing the cycles that occur in the process of transferring this energy to release power in the body that allow us to perform and do work.
So lets’s dig in and God bless :)
P.S. A lot of new additions to the ***COVID Resources & Information*** page so don’t forget to check out the links at the end of the post.
P.P.S I’ve also added a new resource at the bottom entitled Webinars, Docuseries & Health Summits where you can find links to a number upcoming or currently playing online events for valuable health information and classes which are absolutely free to watch and enjoy. Please share this life changing information with friends and family.
Transforming ATP Into Energy
The first law of Thermodynamics is the Law of Conservation of Energy which states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be changed from one form to another. The body converts the nutrients in the food we eat into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the body. It does this through a series of reactions called cellular metabolism, also called cellular respiration. Adenosine, a naturally occurring chemical in all human cells, is made up of adenine and ribose, ribose being a monosaccharide or simple sugar. When the body needs energy it gets it from ATP. The body releases energy by breaking down ATP through a process called ATP hydrolysis, which is the breakdown of ATP using water. During ATP hydrolysis the bond between the second and third phosphate ion of the ATP molecule is broken. The breaking of this bond is called dephosphorylation and is accomplished with the help of an enzyme called ATPase. The ATP hydrolysis and dephosphorylation process requires water (water is literally needed to create energy, so stay hydrated!). The process of dephosphorylation changes ATP into adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which releases energy and one acidic proton (H+), which is a hydrogen ion and a free radical (oxidizing agent). This can result in metabolic acidosis. However, even though the metabolic acidosis that results from the production of hydrogen ions results in loss of muscle power and energy production in the short term, it can have the long-term effect of conditioning the cell to recycle ADP faster and ultimately reduce the oxidative stress of this process. This reinforces the importance of continued physical training.
The ATP-ADP Cycle
Once ATP is broken down and has released its energy, the body normally starts the process over again through the ATP-ADP cycle which is the process of recycling ADP back into ATP to keep providing the body with energy. This cycle reattaches a phosphate ion (Pi) to ADP. The reattachment of a phosphate ion is called rephosphorylation and is accomplished with the help of an enzyme called ATP synthase which then makes a new ATP molecule ready to be broken down again for more energy. Recall us talking about metabolic acidosis earlier? Well, the hydrogen ion, which is a proton (H+), that was released during ATP hydrolysis is removed by the muscle as waste. Muscles are constantly generating hydrogen ions during normal cellular respiration while you’re active or at rest. To address this, the body moves these protons into the mitochondria of the cells where their energy is used to resynthesize ATP with the use of oxygen and the formation of water (during aerobic metabolism which we will discuss later). But as the intensity of exercise increases and more energy is required from ATP, much more protons are released that the body has a hard time keeping up with, so the body uses another method to transfer energy to avoid the lowering of cellular pH (acidosis) of the muscles. Acidosis can reduce physical performance and be damaging to muscles. But, as pointed out previously, the body’s cells can be reprogrammed to perform the task of clearing out these hydrogen ions faster and more efficiently with continued training. Training and conditioning allows the body to keep converting ADP to ATP and delays the body resorting to another method, converting ADP to AMP.
ADP To Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)
Earlier I stated that normally the body starts the process of energy transfer over again by converting ADP back into ATP through the ATP-ADP cycle. However, when an individual places high energy demands on the body that exceed what the ATP-ADP cycle can provide, such as an all-out exertion effort that lasts about 10-15 seconds (such as sprinting), the body will transfer energy another way.
When ADP is produced from the breaking down of ATP, there are two phosphate ions that still remain. The bond between these two phosphates can also be broken to release the stored energy. During all-out exertion ADP accumulates in the muscle and cannot rephosphorylate back into ATP fast enough. So, to meet immediate energy demands, the enzyme adenylate kinase takes two ADP molecules and, instead of converting both of them into ATP molecules, it converts one into ATP through rephosphorylation and one into an adenosine monophosphate (AMP) molecule through desphosphorylation.
Now, when energy demand remains high after those 10-15 seconds and after the body has resorted to converting two ADPs into one ATP and one AMP, the ADP molecules are now no longer even able to rephosphorylate back into ATP and AMP. What happens now is the body takes one single ADP molecule (not two) and converts it into AMP and one lone phosphate to release energy. Because the body normally both rephosphorylates and dephosphorylates, this prevents so many lone phosphate ions from accumulating and making the muscles acidic and reducing their ability to perform. Think of it as the body making and destroying or producing and consuming rather than just consuming. So, because the body is now forced to only consume (dephosphorylation) instead of also producing (phosphorylation/rephosphorylation), this occurs only in extreme circumstances. The body is essentially going into debt, or creating a physiological deficit, and you can only do that for so long before you’re unable to function. Furthermore, not only do the building up of lone phosphate ions cause muscle fatigue and hinder physical performance, but AMP is also not an ideal molecule to have in the cells. It can further break down and create ammonia which is toxic to muscle tissue and blood when present in large quantities or unfiltered by the urinary system. When you’re pushing hard, you’ll have to rest at some point and recover.
Basically, the body would much rather convert ADP into ATP and AMP to have an ATP molecule around to still break down for energy which doesn’t produce a toxic substance, instead of converting ADP into AMP and a phosphate. When the body resorts to this it has the two-fold downside of the lone phosphate contributing to already existing phosphate ions and AMP potentially being broken down into ammonia.
New additions include:
Documentation & Resources
Supporting Evidence: Early COVID Treatment Works, Vaccinating Children Means Unnecessary Risks, COVID-Recovered Immunity is Durable.
News, Websites & Articles
RFK, Jr. Interviews Vanden Bossche: Why Vaccinating for Omicron Could Make Pandemic More Deadly.
COVID Vaccines: All Risk, No Benefit for Kids and Young Adults, New Data Show.
Shocking study finds covid vaccines REWRITE your DNA… criminal CDC proven to have repeatedly LIED about this very issue to deceive and harm the public.
Omi-gone: Covid outbreaks are now shrinking in 95 PER CENT of England's 7,000 neighbourhoods as maps illustrate how wave has collapsed since January's peak.
Around 73% of Americans are 'immune' to the Omicron variant and White House official says the US is nearing a point where 'Covid isn't a crisis': Daily cases down 42% over past week as deaths drop 8%.
17,000 Physicians and Medical Scientists Declare “COVID National Emergency Over” and Call on Congress to Restore Constitutional Democracy by Ending Emergency Powers. An international alliance of 17,000 physicians and medical scientists recently concluded that C_V_D-19 is no longer a “national emergency". After two years of research and gathering clinical data and evidence, the group shared that C_V_D is highly treatable and is "better addressed with natural immunity and proven medication". And they confirm what we’ve known all along: “Vaccines have failed to reduce spread of COVID-19 and pose several health risks, while natural immunity for children and healthy adults has proven more effective.”
Podcasts, Interviews & Videos
Pfizer Vaccine Becomes DNA in Liver Cells (In-Vitro Swedish Study) -
TOP SECRET PFIZER DOC INCLUDING SIDE EFFECTS LEAKED ONLINE - STRANGER THAN FICTION NEWS.